In order to investigate the Sun and the mechanism which controls space weather close to the earth, NASA has allowed two heliophysics missions. Along, NASA’s dedication to the Epsilon Extreme Ultraviolet High-Throughput Spectroscopic Telescope Project, or EUVST, as well as Electrojet Zeeman Imaging Explorer, or EZIE, would help us better comprehend the intertwined structure of the Earth and the Sun. One day, recognizing the physics behind solar wind and solar bursts, especially solar flares as well as coronal mass ejections, will help scientists foresee these phenomena, which would influence human technologies and space explorers.

JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) is heading the Epsilon Mission (Solar-C EUVST Mission) of the Extreme Ultraviolet High-Throughput Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVST), together with other foreign collaborators. EUVST is the solar telescope scheduled for deployment in 2026, which will examine how the solar environment generates solar wind as well as control solar material eruptions. These processes spread from the Sun and affect the solar system’s whole space radiation setting. In order to provide background for spectrographic calculation, NASA’s hardware inputs to the mission such as an intensified UV detector as well as support circuitry, spectrograph modules, a reference telescope, software as well as a slit-jaw imaging system. The expenditure for NASA’s EUVST donations is $55 million. Harry Warren of the United States is the lead investigator for NASA’s contribution to EUVST at Washington’s Naval Research Laboratory.

The Electrojet Zeeman Imaging Explorer (EZIE) would research electrical signals in the Earth’s environment that connect aurora to the magnetosphere of the Earth, one part of the dynamic space weather system of the Earth that reacts to solar activity as well as other influences. Even if the details of these currents’ composition are not known, the Auroral Electrojet index is a standard indicator of degrees of geomagnetic activity. It will be released by EZIE no sooner than June 2024. The total spending is $53.3 million for the EZIE mission. Jeng-Hwa (Sam) Yee at Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University situated in Laurel, Maryland, is the principal investigator for this mission.

Thomas Zurbuchen, who works at NASA Headquarters in Washington as the Associate Administrator for Science, said, “We are delighted to include these new programs to the increasing fleet of satellites which are examining our Sun-Earth structure using an impressive variety of unprecedented observational instruments.”   “Apart from my enthusiasm for the selection of a revolutionary multi-point observatory based on the auroral electrojets, I’m happy to follow up the progress of the Yohkoh as well as Hinode solar science programs with further international cooperation on EUVST with JAXA as well as other European partners.” The EUVST mission discusses the proposals made by the multi-agency Next Generation Solar Physics Mission Solar Physics Objectives Committee in a July 2017 latest presentation.